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Beneficios del entrenamiento inestable… ¿Para la salud? ¿Para el rendimiento?

En la actualidad la industria del Fitness es un sector en continua metamorfosis, expansión y desarrollo. La oferta de programas de actividad física es inmensamente variada, y los objetivos pretendidos y públicos que los consumen son aún más heterogéneos.

En la última década, las superficies inestables se han convertido en una herramienta muy habitual y utilizada en centros deportivos, clínicas de rehabilitación y gimnasios, empleándose para multitud de objetivos, entre los que se encuentran el rendimiento deportivo, la salud o la prevención y recuperación de lesiones.

¿Que son los materiales desestabilizadores?

Cualquier material, diseñado específicamente o adaptado, que por sus características físicas no está firmemente unido al suelo, pudiendo rodar, deslizarse, vibrar o realizar cualquier otro tipo de movimiento que genere situaciones en las que sea necesaria la intervención del equilibrio con el fin de mejorar la condición física, la actividad propioceptiva y las demandas de control neuromuscular.

Algunas de las tendencias actuales en lo referente al entrenamiento funcional están orientadas hacia la utilización de ejercicios y tareas en situaciones inestables muy variadas y, en ocasiones, poco estudiadas y consideradas de manera objetiva.

A continuación podrás ver algunos ejemplos de materiales desestabilizadores o inestables más representativos y una breve descripción de sus características más peculiares.

Ejemplos

Fitball (pelota suiza)

Pelota de plástico de gran diámetro (variable a considerar según sujetos)
Bosu
 
Aparato que nace de la división de una pelota gigante. Es decir tiene una parte de aire y otra rígida.

T-Bow

Arco de fibra sintética (polietileno) o madera natural, con dimensiones (70x50x17 cm.), equilibrado y con un peso reducido (de 3,2 a 4,7 Kg). Es posible utilizarlo por ambos lados (con un granulado en la parte cóncava y una esterilla en l aparte convexa)

TRX

Elementos mediante los cuales el sujeto queda suspendido a nivel de algunas de sus extremidades (miembros superiores o inferiores)
Slide Board Pro
Superficie rectangular que permite el deslizamiento corporal hacia los lados. Para ello se utilizan una especie de patucos realizados de un tejido que posibilita un mejor deslizamiento de los pies en el slide y que se adquieren normalmente junto con este. A los dos lados del slide se sitúan una especie de topes que limitan el movimiento lateral de los pies y piernas.

Evidencias cientificas y aclaraciones

  • El entrenamiento inestable disminuye los efectos sobre la mejora de fuerza y potencia en sujetos entrenados. Por eso se recomienda la utilización de medios inestables en combinación, y nunca de forma exclusiva, con el entrenamiento de fuerza con pesos libres cuando se trabaje con poblaciones deportistas. Ya que la mayoría de los deportes se desarrollan en entornos estables, los ejercicios de fuerza diseñados para retar a la estabilidad espinal deberían prescribirse en ese contexto de estabilidad (Cressey et al.2007; Willardson, 2007).
  • El entrenamiento inestable del tren inferior es inespecífico de la mayoría de actividades deportivas y por eso no produce mejoras sustanciales de fuerza o rendimiento en tareas funcionales (principio de especificidad).
  • Los ejercicios con pesos libres realizados en el suelo y de pie deben ser la base para mejorar la estabilidad central específica en los deportistas sanos que entrenan para mejorar su fuerza, potencia y velocidad (Behn et al., 2005, 2010, 2012; Willardson, 2007).
  • Los crunch sobre superficies inestables podrían ser más útiles para el desarrollo de la resistencia muscular o con fines estéticos (hipertrofia) (Behn et al., 2012).
  • Las mejoras de fuerza y estabilidad central tras un programa de entrenamiento del core (mediante ejercicios en entornos estables o inestables) no siempre se correlacionan con mejoras de rendimiento en actividades deportivas. 
  • Salud raquídea. La mejora de la resistencia muscular y estabilidad central, mediante el fortalecimiento muscular y la mejora del control neural o motor del raquis, puede ayudar en la prevención y disminución de la incidencia del dolor lumbar y la mejora funcional de sujetos con dolor lumbar crónico al disponer de un core y un sistema estabilizador más sólido.
  • Sabemos por tanto que el uso de superficies inestables puede proporcionar múltiples beneficios en el ámbito de la rehabilitación por restablecer el funcionamiento normal de la musculatura estabilizadora y facilitar la reeducación propioceptiva de los miembros inferiores lesionados (rodilla y tobillo).
  • Aclarando, podríamos decir, si el objetivo es la activación del core, y el trabajo directo del mismo, el entrenamiento inestable tiene un papel fundamental.
    • Pero lo que NO tiene sentido es querer aumentar potencia, hipertrofia o fuerza, sobre superficies inestables, puesto que ni es especifico, ni transferible posteriormente.
  • Concluir diciendo que un core más fuerte y estable influye indirectamente en el rendimiento deportivo al prevenir lesiones que retrasen el proceso de entrenamiento, al igual que en la salud, previniendo muchas patologías de espalda entre otras cosas.

Fuente: evidencias sobre los efectos del entrenamiento inestable para la salud y el rendimiento. IICEFS- Instituto internacional de Ciencias del Ejercicio físico y la Salud

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